the Hellenistic period it was under the influence of the Ptolemaic
Empire for a long time and its port was used as a dockyard for the
fleets from Egypt and Rhodes. In the following years, Samos, like
the rest of the Greek world, is ruled by the Romans and becomes,
after the final disintegration of the city-state and the
Hellenistic states, a small island in the vast empire and a
perfect resort for Roman officials.
Samos is chosen as a holiday
resort by Antony and Cleopatra, too. Private dwellings and
splendid mansions decorate the city, proving that the island never
lacked craftsmen or love for beauty.
The Roman conquer brought, apart from the “Roman peace”, new
people, new ways of living, new gods and worship. Hot springs,
temples of Cybele, altars, offerings and lots of other monuments
that are preserved, indicate the Roman presence at the island.
Christianity and the structure of the Byzantine empire give Samos
a different look. The Christian monuments cover up or alter the
ancient temples. Yet, the city declines. The Persian and Arab
raids force the population to retire inside the island and settle
down at mountainous and, of course, fortified areas (Kastro
Louloudas, Kastro Lazarou, Kastraki, etc).